Posts Tagged ‘Traditional Camp Equipment’

The Stonebridge Automatic Folding Candle Lantern

Sunday, August 28th, 2016

 

NOTE: This is a significantly revised version of a much earlier post published on 11/9/2010 that I have since deleted.

The Stonebridge Automatic Folding Candle Lantern was patented and manufactured by Charles H. Stonebridge in 1906 and quickly became one of the most popular camping equipment items of the day.  In World War I it served as the U. S. Army issued Medical Corp lantern and field lantern in addition to being selected for use by the Canadian armed forces and the armies of several European nations.  A number of camping how-to books and dozens of magazine articles recommended the Stonebridge lantern, which can be seen in old book illustrations and photographs of early campers.  Some of the authors that specifically mentioned or recommended the Stonebridge lantern include –

  • Edward Breck – The Way of the Woods; A Manual for Sportsmen in Northeastern United States and Canada (1908), G. P. Putman’s Sons, New York, NY
  • Francis Buzzacott – Buzzacott’s Masterpiece, or the Complete Hunter’s, Trapper’s, & Camper’s Library of Valuable Information, (1913), McMains & Meyer Publishers, Milwaukee, WI
  • Horace Kephart – The Book of Camping And Woodcraft: Guidebook For Those Who Travel In The Wilderness, (1910) and Camping and Woodcraft, a two volume set, Vol. 1 Camping (1917), Macmillan Publishing, New York, NY
  • Calvin Rutstrum – The New Way of the Wilderness (1958), Macmillan Publishing, New York, NY
  • Stewart Edward White – Camp and Trail (1907), Outers Publishing Company, New York, NY

Early illustration of the Stonebridge Lantern (bottom right) in this collection of items to be included in the camp kit.

Stonebridge lanterns were produced in galvanized steel, solid brass and aluminum.  Woodcraft author Stewart Edward White highly recommended the galvanized model while author Horace Kephart recommended the brass version.  Aluminum models were generally not recommended as the aluminum of the day was very soft and could not take the abuses of camping without soon being bent out of shape.  Interestingly, Kephart’s own surviving lantern is an aluminum model.

Kephart’s own Stonebridge lantern.

Courtesy of the Hunter Library Special Collections and the Mountain Heritage Center Special Exhibit:
“Horace Kephart: Revealing An Enigma”

The Stonebridge was an ingenious, feature-packed lantern.  It had a flat, internal wind shield located beneath the peaked “roof” of the lantern.  The wind shield, designed to protect the candle flame in high wind, contained an opening for smoke to exit the lantern. The lantern windows were made of isinglass (thin sheets of mica), a material that is transparent rather than crystal clear.  Isinglass is somewhat flexible and more resistant to breakage than glass sheet but pressing on it too hard leaves whitish, cloudy spots that cannot be repaired.  Isinglass is remarkably durable.  Surviving Stonebridge lanterns manufactured more than 100 years ago are regularly found with the isinglass windows fully intact.  However, the method used by Stonebridge to install the isinglass makes it nearly impossible to replace a window if damaged or missing.

The lantern also featured adjustable air vents that regulated the amount of air entering the lantern.

The floor of the Stonebridge featured a self-adjusting flexible wire candle holder and 6 rows of small round vent holes to admit air and allow for drainage if water were to enter the lantern.  These vent holes are a bit of a nuisance as melted candle wax can (and occasionally does) drip out of them when the lantern is in use.

The lantern back was of a solid sheet that featured a brass rimmed port to allow the lantern to be hung on a nail.  It also featured a wire bail from which the lantern could be carried or suspended.

Of course, the most important feature was its ability to collapse into a flat, rectangular box that took up little space in the crate, pack or warbag.  Dimensions of the Stonebridge lantern are:  Folded: 4 1/8” x 7” x 1 /2”. Unfolded:  4 1/8” wide, 4 /2” deep, 10” high to the top of the peak of the “roof” and 14” including the extended wire bail.

The Stonebridge lantern was such an important part of camping for so long, when America entered the modern lightweight backpacking age, one of the most popular candle lanterns turned out to be a Japanese copy of the Stonebridge in aluminum alloy.  I owned one of these lantern back then but at the time did not know of it’s historical connection.  If you would like to see the Japanese copy in 1970’s action, I recommend you check out the “Backpacker & Hiker’s Handbook” by William Kemsley Jr. (Stackpole Books, 2008). Kemsley was the founder of Backpacker Magazine and the book is chock full of 1970’s hiking photos, many of which show this interesting lantern.

1970’s backpacking candle lantern was a copy of the Stonebridge lantern

Because I consider the Stonebridge lantern to be so quintessential to a traditional camp it was the very first item I purchased when beginning to assemble my woodcraft camp kit.  Rather than choosing an original, I chose a rustproof solid brass replica from Lee Valley Tools of Ogdensburg, NY (no longer stocked).  It now appears that Garrett Wade is the only firm that carries it. As the price was recently reduced, it may be that Garrett Wade plans to clear out their remaining stock.

As I had not seen an actual Stonebridge lantern, I believed the replica to be exact with the exception of having differently shaped air vents.  I’ve since discovered that the replica is quite different.  For a start, the dimensions are not the same: The Replica Dimensions Folded: 4 3/8” x 6 1/4” x 1 /2”. Unfolded: 4 1/4” wide, 4/3/8” deep, 6 1/8” high to the top of the peak of the “roof” and 12” including the extended wire bail.  Second, the stampings on the top of the lantern have been altered.

Genuine and replica Stonebridge Lanterns side by side

The original stamping that included the manufacturer’s name and the various patent dates, included the phrase “Made in the USA”.  This is absent from the Indian-made replica. The vent holes are also different, not only in shape (round holes instead of vertical slots) but they are not adjustable.  The floor of the replica is of solid brass sheet and the spring clip that releases the lantern bottom for folding is also different in looks and function.

This side view of the genuine and replica lanterns shows the differences in the shape and design of the vent holes

Still, despite these changes, the Stonebridge replica makes a great traditional camp lantern because it is  sturdy, it is rustproof, it does not drip candle wax through the bottom, and the isinglass windows are mounted in such a that they can be replaced if need be.  However, while I’ve been entirely happy with my replica, I’ve wanted a vintage Stonebridge lantern after seeing a nice original example a couple of years ago.

Stamping on genuine lantern

Stamping on replica lantern

Because galvanized steel versions made up the bulk of the company’s lantern production, nice originals often come up for sale on eBay, priced around $50-$100.00.  Brass models must have been made in very small numbers as I’ve yet to see one.  Aluminum models are only slightly less rare.  In ten years, I’ve only seen two.  The first one was out of my reach and the next one I bought.  It’s just like Horace Kephart’s personal lantern!

My example is in good condition considering it is aluminum.  I can attest to the fact that the aluminum lanterns are very soft indeed.  It is difficult to fold and unfold the thing without bending it out of shape.  In addition, the various components of original Stonebridge lanterns where held together with tiny steel rivets. The aluminum sheet is so soft, that with even moderate use, the large end of these rivets can wallow out the hole they are in, causing them to fall out, particularly those that hold the air vent adjustment.  In fact, the aluminum lanterns are so soft, if I were packing one for camp, I would put it in a sturdy, rigid cardboard box for protection.

Since I can use my sturdy brass reproduction for camping, I may simply display this Kephart lantern clone.  If you desire an authentic camping light from the woodcraft period, you simply must add a Stonebridge Automatic Folding Candle Lantern to your camp kit.

Woodcraft Skill Project ~ A Birch Bark Matchsafe

Sunday, December 9th, 2012

My birch bark matchsafe

One of the aspects of woodcraft and traditional camping that really appeals to me is crafting and making some or even much of your equipment.   If you enjoy working with your hands, if you are handy with tools or even a tool buffoon like me, you can make some of your own gear.

I made this birch bark matchsafe a few years ago and have been very happy with it.  It has proven to be sturdy and waterproof enough to keep my matches dry.  While the waterproof qualities may not equal that of a commercially made metal or plastic matchsafe with a rubber gasket, mine beats all of them hands down for beauty and rustic elegance.  And, every time I use it I think – WOW! I made it myself!

I live in Oklahoma, where we only have River Birch.  We are not a region known for significant birch forests.  If you do not have ready access to birch bark, I suggest you buy your bark from this site.  I purchased a large sheet of bark from them years ago and am still using it.  I have made lots of bark objects from that single large sheet.

At the time I made the matchsafe I’d never thought of blogging so sadly, I did not take photos of the steps I used in making it.  However, I see that some guy named Ray Mears has now copied me on YouTube (just kidding Mr. Mears).

I essentially made my matchsafe exactly as Ray did but made two mistakes –

1)      I stupidly miscalculated the length of the interior and made the matchsafe too short.  When the bottom and top plugs were inserted, the insides weren’t long enough to hold standard strike-anywhere matches.  To solve this problem, I cut a deeper birch plug for the bottom and hollowed it out on the inside with a crooked knife.  It worked but was more effort than just starting over again.

Bottom of birch bark matchsafe

Bottom of matchsafe and underside of stopper. Both are made from a birch branch and finished with raw linseed oil.

Interior of birch bark matchsafe

Here is the interior of the matchsafe showing the carved-out plug. Not a bad job if I do say so myself.

2)      Unlike Ray, I never thought of using an interior wedge/exterior compression string to hold everything together.  Thus, the notched, pointed end that fits into the slot came loose before the glue dried and it eased out of the slot a bit.  It didn’t really matter because the glue holds everything in place but it’s not perfect.

One more thing – Ray doesn’t mention doing this, but I thinned Elmer’s Wood Glue down with warm water and gave the interior and exterior of the bark part of the matchsafe a couple of coats, with an overnight drying time between coats.  I also oiled the stopper and bottom plug with raw linseed oil to bring out the grain.

 

Exterior of birch bark matchsafe

I gave the bark of the finished matchsafe two coats of thinned Elmer’s Wood Glue to enhance the waterproofness.

The Improved Nomad Woodstove

Saturday, September 17th, 2011

A couple of years ago I read Paul Van Horn’s online article on his Nomad stove.  I like Paul Van Horn.  I first discovered his writing while developing a school curriculum that focused on human reliance on natural resources for grad school.  The project led to my current interest (obsession??) in traditional woodcraft skills.

Paul’s stove is a high performance version of the old “hobo” or tin-can stoves, popular with woodcrafters a half-century ago.  Both Ellsworth Jaeger and Bernard S. Mason described tin-can stoves in their books “Wildwood Wisdom” and “Woodcraft“, respectively –

 

Tin Can Kitchens from Wildwood Wisdom by Ellsworth Jaeger (1945)

 

Tin-Can Stoves and Bakers from Woodcraft by Bernard S. Mason (1939)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Improved Nomad Stove. Note side opening for loading firewood, fresh air vents at the bottom of the can, cooking grate from removable brass rod and lower set of holes to adjust the grate for windy conditions.

Looking into the mouth of the Improved Nomad Stove. The ventilated raised floor can be seen underneath the pot supports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to Paul Van Horn, “the pot must be of a size that allows it to sit down inside the stove with a minimum of ¾” clearance between the sides and the wall of the stove on all sides.  A pot that is too large will result in a smoky, sooty burn.”  I just could not find the right pot.  Van Horn used a tin can but reading Camp Craft by Warren H. Miller (1918), one of my very favorite authors, proved that very well made aluminum camp cookware was available around the turn of the century.  Desiring a light aluminum cook pot of the right size, I searched for over a year until I found this 5-cup Bush Pot at Ben’s Backwoods.  It is a smaller version of the Mors Kochanski Bush Pot.  The new pot fit perfectly!  Made from dark anodized aluminum, it’s fitted with a very snug lid with a lift handle and like the Kochanski pot features a pour spout and folding handles.  The pot comes with a bail kit that the owner may attach if they so desire  Sadly, the pot will not fit into the paint can with the bail attached.

To ready the stove for use, I ignited a fire in it to burn the paint off the inside of the can and underside of the lid.  WOW! Does this stove burn hot!  One thing I quickly learned was to have a large pile of twigs handy because the stove will consume them rapidly.

 

Burning the paint out of the Improved Nomad Woodstove

 

After removing the paint, I rubbed the interior and exterior of the can with vegetable oil and heated it over a very low flame on on my range, “seasoning” it as you would a dutch oven to produce a protective rustproof coating.   Then I sewed up a storage sack from pre-shrunk cotton muslin that I coated with Filson Oil Finish Wax.

 

 

I pack the stove away by sliding the brass rods into spaces between the inside of the can and the interior floor.  Then, in goes the bush pot, wrapped in a flour-sack dish towel. with a pair of deerskin gloves packed inside.  The pot lifter fits down between pot and stove can and the lid is pressed on.  Finally, the stove is placed into the stuff sack and is ready for the trail!

 

Packed for the Trail

 

I like this stove alot.  It was easy to make, performs very well and is a versatile cooker – producing boiling water to pancakes and fried eggs.  I’ve been very pleased with how it turned out and now share it with the fraternity of outers that enjoy spending time under the stars.

Recommended Kerosene Lanterns

Monday, January 10th, 2011

Dietz Comet kerosene lantern (this one from 1952) – the official lantern of the Boy Scouts of America. My favorite camping lantern!

Cabin or camp; moor or mountain; paddle or pack trail, some lantern models serve certain purposes better than others.  For traditional camping, I prefer “short globe” lanterns and one model – the Dietz #50 Comet, is my favorite.  Here is why I like ‘em and how they differ from other kerosene lanterns.

From their introduction, tubular lanterns from all makers used tall teardrop shaped globes.  This globe shape has the advantage of creating good draft, which results in producing a tall flame by pulling the flame up with the exhausted air.  All things being equal, a tall flame is brighter than a short flame of the same width (flame width is determined by the width of the flat wick).  A tall globe also provides a large glass area and so, creates a relatively large amount of illumination for the overall size of the lantern.

Globes remained unchanged until 1912 when the short globe style lantern was introduced.  The most obvious benefit of the short globe style is that it results in a shorter and more compact lantern, an important consideration when camping as it takes up less pack space.  There is also less glass area and thus, less chance of globe breakage.  Still, short globed lanterns have their downsides.  For one, they generally aren’t as bright.  A quick check of Kirkman lanterns shows that tall globed models average about 12 candle power while short globed models average just over 9 candle power (two short globed models, the Dietz #90 D-Lite and #8 Air Pilot lanterns both produce 12-14 candle power with a 7/8” wide wick).  This difference would be most troublesome when using the lantern for interior lighting (where I suspect you would want maximum brightness) and/or any kind of use at higher elevations.  According to Woody Kirkman (FAQ page) the “tall profile of the W.T. Kirkman Champion or the Dietz Blizzard lanterns (tall globe models) provides additional draft that helps compensate for the lack of oxygen at higher elevations.  These lantern models will burn brighter than the “short globe” lanterns such as the D-Lite or Air Pilot, especially at elevations above 5000′.” (“Copyrighted Text by W.T. Kirkman Used With Permission, Courtesy of www.lanternnet.com “)

Yet, even with these disadvantages, I like the short globed lanterns best.  To me, a tall globed lantern says barn lamp but a short globed lantern says camp and field lamp – and that’s what we’re interested in (all of the WWII era military kerosene lanterns I’ve seen are short globed types).  To be faithful to turn-of-the-century camping, you’d have to use a tall globe lantern as short globed models hadn’t been invented yet.  And even after their introduction they must not have caught on immediately as all of the camp photographs of kerosene lanterns I’ve seen up through WWI have been of tall globed models (and most of those are curiously hot blast lanterns).  Short globed tubular lanterns were not regularly used in the field till much later, and were not specifically marketed for camping in the U.S. until the U. S. introduction of the Dietz Comet after WWII.

Dietz Comet recommendation from “First Camping Trip” by C. B. Colby (1955), Coward-McCann Publishing NY

The Dietz Comet was first marketed as an export model in 1934 and after WWII, as a low cost “economy” lantern in the States.  As Dietz stated on the box – “A practical Dietz lantern at the price of a toy”.  Just over 8 inches high, the Comet was the smallest cold blast lantern ever manufactured by Dietz.  Using a 3/8 inch wick, it produces about 4 candle power of illumination.  Shortly after its U.S. unveiling the Comet was chosen as the “Official” lantern of the Boy Scouts of America (see Boy’s Life ad here).  Comets were popular and were produced in very large numbers.  Interestingly, though intended as a low cost product, some of the the parts were asymmetrical, which made the lantern expensive to manufacture.  As a result, Dietz wanted to end production of the lantern decades before they actually stopped making it.  Only the extreme popularity of the Comet forestalled its end just a few years ago (the company has effectively ended production by requiring minimum orders of 10,000 units).

Because Comets were intended to be a low priced item, their pre-war tin plate finish was scaled back to the less rust inhibiting terne plating used for the rest of the production run (terne plate is an inexpensive alloy of tin and lead).  As the terne plate was judged not protective enough, Dietz painted over the plating.  Bright red was used for nearly the entire production run but Comets were also painted grey, blue and forest green at different times.

A boy’s first camp is lit by the Dietz Comet, from “First Camping Trip” by C. B. Colby (1955), Coward-McCann Publishing NY (colorization of illustrations for enhanced viewing by yours truly.)

If you want a truly appropriate camping lantern you can often find original Comets on eBay or Craigslist.  In my experience, about half of the ones described as “excellent” end up with issues that must be addressed before use: cracked fuel filler necks, leaking tanks etc.  So, if you don’t want to deal with these problems make sure to ask the seller if the lantern has been tested and suffers from any corrosion beyond surface rust, has a leaky tank (at the bottom crimp), cracked fuel filler, or any other flaw (if you’re handy, these minor problems can be repaired).  If the lantern works, don’t worry too much about how the finish looks.  It can be easily cleaned of all gunk, grime, rust and old paint by following the instructions for cleaning a rusty tubular lantern, under the “Soda Ash and Battery Charger Method” on Kirkman’s website (half-way down the page).  You’ll end up with a perfectly cleaned, bare metal finish with the patina intact.  The lantern can then be repainted or protected by being rubbed occasionally with light machine oil or Briwax brand creamed beeswax.

Old red Comet lantern (shown at top of page) after restoration using Kirkman’s soda ash and battery charger method.

 

Beautiful new-old-stock Comet lantern from the 1950’s

 

You could also buy a brand new Comet.  Dietz began listing the Comet in their product line in 2013, for the first time in a number of years.  I see that Kirkman Lanterns is selling them again (see my recent post on the subject).  There are other Comet-sized  clones on the market but BEWARE!  These are poor quality Asian-made lanterns of flimsy construction (some are even made from recycled tuna cans – nothing like a genuine Comet).  And none use strong, heat resistant glass globes. The only high quality Comet clone I know of, the Petromax hl 1 Storm Lantern appears to have been discontinued.

 

 

No other lantern is as compact as the Comet.  Other recommendations include the Feuerhand Model #276 “Baby Special” lantern.  At 10 inches high and fitted with a 1/2″ wick, the Feuerhand is larger and brighter than the Comet, producing 7 candle power.  The 276 is available in both painted and tin plated finishes,  the Feuerhand is a beautifully made historic model as it dates from the early 1930s.  These German beauties cost nearly double that of the Asian-made Dietz products.

 

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The inexpensive Dietz Original #76 is another great camping lantern.  Introduced in 1978 to replace the Comet, the Original #76 is very similar to the Feuerhand #276 (perhaps that is why it’s called the 76?).  These lanterns are available in painted ($11.00), tin plate (approx $16.00) and rustproof solid brass (about $35.00) finishes.   Though not commonly found, the Dietz #78 Mars lantern is another good choice.  The Mars is a #76 with a larger fount.

For anyone living in or near Oklahoma City, OK, Nix Lumber & Hardware (5117 NW 10th Street, Ph: 405-942-5561) is a Dietz lantern dealer.  Nix Lumber is an old fashioned store.  They carry all manner of galvanized wash tubs and pails, new wash boards, cast iron pot-bellied wood stoves, and other esoterica. In addition to the lanterns, Nix carries replacement wicks, globes and lamp oil.  I LOVE the place.

Using a Kerosene Lantern ~

To fuel these lanterns you MUST use only clear, unscented kerosene or “clear lamp oil” (such as Aladdin or Lamplight brand “Medallion”).  Note that in Europe kerosene is called paraffin.  But in this country, paraffin refers to solid or liquid paraffin wax.  At every store where I’ve seen tubular kerosene lanterns for sale, they are marketed along with some sort of liquid paraffin wax fuel.  DO NOT USE LIQUID PARAFFIN WAX IN A TUBULAR KEROSENE LANTERN!!!  For more information on this please read Kirkman’s FAQ page here.

Note also that tubular lanterns do not have sealed tanks.  Everything is crimped in place.  So if overfilled or tilted, they will leak like a sieve.  Do not fill the fount above the top of the air chamber (about 85% full according to Dietz) or fuel can spill into the chamber where it will leak out the side tube joint, giving the impression that the lantern is leaking (modern lanterns usually have a sticker on the outside of the tank warning you of the maximum fill line).  Of course lanterns that are tipped too far over will also leak out of the burner socket as that is a hole.  When camping, you must always keep the lantern in an upright position and empty any remaining fuel (back into your fuel bottle) before packing the lamp away for transport.

Improving lantern performance ~

Our knowledge of wick lamp technology declined rapidly after rural electrical service was established in America.  Except for perhaps Amish or similar communities, wick lamps are no longer used on a daily basis and the regular routine of trimming wicks, filling founts, cleaning the globe, and other lamp maintenance disappeared.  In order to gain the best performance from a kerosene lantern, you should familiarize yourself with these skills.  As a first step (1) – Learn to select the right fuel – clear, non-dyed, unscented high-grade kerosene (K-1) or clear lamp oil (Aladdin or Medallion).  NO paraffin, NO red dyed kerosene, NO scented lamp oil, NO citronella oil, NO other kind of fuel!  (2) – do not leave kerosene in the lantern for long periods without using daily.  Kerosene will degrade as it slowly evaporates in the tank and this will clog the wick.  To store the lantern, pour out the kerosene, remove the burner and allow the wick to completely air dry – then reassemble before putting it away.  (3) – Before the first use or after storage, fill the tank with clean kerosene and allow at least 10 minutes for the wick to become saturated before lighting.  (4) – When using the lantern, do not allow the tank to burn dry.  I’ve seen a few forum posts stating that the Dietz lantern can be burned till every drop of fuel is spent, leaving the reservoir completely empty.  That may be true, but you should never allow a lantern to burn dry!  When the tank is full, the wick is charred ever so slightly when the flame is burning.  It is the vapor from the fuel that you are actually burning – not the wick.  If you burn the tank dry, the wick begins to burn in earnest and is consumed at a rapid rate.  Wicks will last a lot longer if you put the lantern out before the tank empties.  (5) – Learn to properly trim and adjust the wick.  The wick should be trimmed as required to maintain a smooth edge.  If a new wick has a frayed end or any loose threads trim it back to a smooth edge before lighting.  To relight a wick, pinch off any charred crust before use.  Eventually the wick will develop a jagged edge that needs to be trimmed back to an even edge again.  See here for an illuminating look (no pun intended) at how this little chore can really boost lantern performance.  (6) – Learn to adjust the wick height and use the lantern.  This copy of the Feuerhand lantern instructions, featured on the Blue Lantern website shows you how it’s done.  In addition, the Dietz lantern instructions include the following recommendations:

  1. After the wick is lit, it should be adjusted to no more than 1/16th inch above the flame plate.
  2. As the lantern warms to operating temperature, the flame will increase in size.
  3. Five minutes after lighting (warming up), the fame may be adjusted to provide maximum illumination.
  4. If the wick is set too high, smoking will occur, which means soot will be deposited on the globe.

Transporting the lantern ~

I carry my fuel in a Sigg “heritage” vintage-style water bottle.  I pack the lantern by first wrapping a piece of soft wool batting around the globe (between the globe and air tubes) and then wrapping the whole thing in a larger piece of wool batting and placing the padded lantern in a waxed cotton stuff sack.

Bring along one of these beautiful, historic lanterns on your next traditional trip and experience a cheery night camp that glows with soft light.  I know you’ll quickly become a tubular kerosene lantern aficionado.

The Kerosene Lantern in Camp

Sunday, December 26th, 2010

 

Kerosene lantern in an early camp, from “Camp Life and Camp Kits”, by Charles Steadman Hanks, Scribners (1915)

Now let’s consider another of my favorite traditional camping lights – the tubular kerosene lantern, often seen in many old photographs of early camps.  Though they weren’t used much (if at all) on hikes, they were popular with outdoorsmen traveling on horseback and canoe and were used in all fixed camps.  Everyone knows what these kinds of lanterns look like but most today have never actually used one.

The introduction of the kerosene lamp in the 1850’s was a remarkable achievement.  Before that, illumination was provided by candles or “wick” lamps fueled by vegetable oil, lard, whale oil, or “camphene”, a mixture of alcohol, turpentine and camphor.  However, all were imperfect, being either too thick to wick easily, too expensive (Whale oil cost the equivalent of $200.00 a gallon in today’s money), too dangerous (camphene’s inflammability led to many deadly fires), too dim and/or produced disagreeable fumes and soot.  By comparison, kerosene was revolutionary.  It burned brighter than any fuel but whale oil, was not easily ignited and proved very safe to use.  It didn’t smoke unless the lamp was improperly used or not maintained, and was less inexpensive than even vegetable oil.  However, in single wick lamp form it produced a flame just slightly brighter than a single candle (due to the larger flat wick).

Invented by John H. Irwin (1839-1890) in the late 1860’s, and popularized by lamp merchant and manufacturer Robert Edwin Dietz (1818-1897), the tubular kerosene lantern revolutionized illumination technology through the principles of injecting either recirculated, heated air (hot-blast lantern) or fresh, cool air (cold-blast lantern), to a burner to improve brightness (both principles are based on carburetion).  This boosted brightness from 4 to 14 candle power, depending on the height of the lantern chimney and width of the wick – a significant improvement over the “dead flame” lanterns of the period (the Stonebridge lantern is one example of a dead flame lantern).  Dead flame lanterns provide air circulation to the flame through the use of low and high vents but do not burn much brighter than a single candle flame as they do not employ carburetion.  Of the two types of kerosene lanterns, the hot blast models are the most fuel efficient and provide for more complete combustion of the vapor, making them distinctly better for use in enclosed areas.  However, cold blast lanterns quickly dominated the market because they produce a white flame that’s twice as bright as hot blast models.   Tubular lanterns are remarkably safe (if tipped over, they self extinguish in a few seconds) and if fueled correctly, provide dependable light that will burn all night long, even in very windy conditions.

The advent of rural electrical service after WWII spelled the end (mostly) for the kerosene lantern in the U.S. and other developed nations but much of the third world continues to be illuminated by them.  In the 1950’s, as lantern sales began to decline in the U.S., the Dietz company founded a branch in Hong Kong to establish a presence in Asia.  Even after Dietz finally ended domestic production (1971), the R. E. Dietz Co., LTD of Hong Kong (factory in Guangzhou, China) carried on to become the largest maker of kerosene lanterns in the world.

Luckily, you can still purchase new Dietz lantern models that are unchanged from those made 100 years ago (their hot blast “Monarch” has been in continuous production since 1900).  My favorite Dietz dealer is W. T. “Woody” Kirkman, the acknowledged lantern guru of America.  Kirkman stocks the entire line of Dietz lanterns in every color and finish and offers them at very reasonable prices.  In addition to selling Dietz products, Kirkman also markets his own line of premium lanterns (made by Dietz).  These are an improvement over the standard Dietz models as they feature old-style “wing-lock” burners that offer superior wind resistance, bodies are galvanized for superior rust resistance (some are offered with paint over the galvanized finish) and globes are made from thick, heavy, weight-pressed glass just as lantern globes used to be made.  Kirkman has produced three models thus far, all historic types that come the closest to lanterns that date from the turn of the century.  Kirkman also produces an American-made 1870–1890 style “square tube” hot blast lantern in brass, the only one of this type produced in the world.

Kirkman’s also distributes the German-made Feuerhand, brand lantern, the last remaining tubular lantern manufactured in the western world.  Sadly, though the company made many different models in the past, they now market only the model 276 “Baby Special” lantern (as far as I can tell).  These lanterns come with a leak-proof-tank guarantee and are fitted with German-made Schott brand Suprax (same as Pyrex) glass globes.  Offered in painted and tin plated versions, the tin plated version looks nearly identical to the 276 first produced in 1934.  Another U.S. distributor of the Feuerhand lanterns is Garrett Wade.  Although the company does not indicate that these are Feuerhand lanterns on their website, I have confirmed that they are indeed Model 276’s.  The Garrett Wade price of $32.95 seems a bit high (they cost about $19.00 in Europe) but they are German made.  Another good lantern is the Dietz made, German distributed Petromax hl 1 Storm lantern (NOTE: Now appears to be discontinued.  More about this model in my next post).

For much more information on kerosene lantern history, use and maintenance, please see Kirkman’s FAQ page here.

In my next post I’ll highlight the tubular kerosene lantern models I consider most appropriate for traditional camping.

Lighting the Camp

Monday, November 29th, 2010

Camp lights are useful for doing chores after dark, reading in the evening, traveling at night and providing enough low light to get settled for bed.  Camp lights can be divided into three types – flashlights, headlamps and lanterns.  Flashlights and headlamps provide (mostly) concentrated light while lanterns produce ambient light, the kind best for lighting the inside of a tent.  So most campers now carry either a flashlight or headlamp and a lantern.  Headlamps are now more popular than flashlights because they allow you to work with your hands free.  Modern headlamps have become very compact as the advent of energy efficient LED lighting makes it possible for the light to operate on batteries mounted within the lamp housing instead of the old types that required an external belt mounted battery pack.  There have been advances in flashlights as well, with high performance ultrabright LED and incandescent models now dominating the market.  Some of these cost nearly $150.00 with the average being around eighty bucks.  Examples of these are the Petzl Tikka XP  headlamp (120 lumens max, 120 lumens, 2 hrs/low light/100 hrs) and the Surefire G2X Pro Dual-Output LED flashlight (320 lumens, 2.75 hrs/15 lumens, 145 hrs).

It’s a fact that Americans like superlatives.  We want the lightest, strongest, smallest, largest, newest of whatever is made.  With camp lighting it’s no different.   Most folks want the smallest, brightest camp light possible.  In the quest for extreme brightness we’ve created lights that use significant resources in the form of batteries (according to David Wescott in the book Camping in the Old Style, a battery requires fifty times more energy to produce than it will return to the user).  Once they’ve been used, batteries go to the landfill where they leach toxic chemicals into the environment and then the process starts over, requiring us to extract even more resources to produce their replacement.  That may be an acceptable tradeoff for rescue lighting but do most campers need such extreme candlepower?  I doubt it.  Backpackers got by for years with the small Mallory plastic flashlight and a candle lantern.  I doubt anything more is required.

The Woodcrafters also valued dependable camp light.  Of course light output was limited by the technology of the day but they were content to light the camp with a glow not a glare.  In my next post I’ll cover the first of two classic traditional camping lights – the Stonebridge Automatic Folding Candle Lantern.